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Sign-off on a Marked-up Document

In brownfield projects, particularly those facilities which are more than three (3) decades old, the availability of native CAD file drawings is almost nil. Redrafting the facility drawing is not an option due to time schedule constraints. The only option left is to use scanned drawings as background for CAD drawings or in the worst case...

Compliance to Standards and Statutory Laws

What is a Statutory Law?

What do NFPA 70, BS 7671 and AS/NZS 3000 have in common? The former is National Electrical Code (U.S.), the next is the wing regulation in the United Kingdom and the later is the Wiring Rules (Australia and New Zealand). All of them are electrical standards and statutory laws at the same time. This...

The Electrical Engineer and the Electrician

This article has attracted several good comments. I commend everyone who shared their own ideas on the topic. Another good topic is, how would you differentiate an Electrical Engineer from an Electrician. Despite their similarities, these are two distinct occupation. An Electrician is a tradesman specialized in the installation, wiring or maintenance of electrical equipment and related equipment. An Electrical engineer is...

Importance of Standards in Engineering Design

What are Standards?

Standards are foundational framework for technology development. Standards make your life easier. From device to device, network to network, across borders, and around the world, almost all products, services, and technologies in use today are developed, connected, or enabled in some way by standards. In simple terms, standards are documents to establish an agreed and acceptable way of...
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Tutorials

MVA Method

At this times where supercomputers could fit into a mobile phone and utility softwares are always available to do particular tasks, most Electrical Engineers tend to forget how to implement …

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Short Circuit Study
What is a Short Circuit Study? A short circuit study calculates the short circuit capacity at designated locations within a...
MVA Method Short Circuit Calculation
A Short Circuit Study is an important tool in determining the ratings of electrical equipment to be installed...
MVA Method Load Flow Calculation
In previous tutorials for the MVA method, we have discussed the importance of Short Circuit Study, combining KVAs and...
MVA Method for 3-Winding Transformer
In previous tutorials, the examples provided were mostly for 2-winding transformers. In this tutorial, fault calculations for a 3-winding...
Complex MVA Method – Part 3
In Part 2, we have seen how to combine MVAs connected...
Complex MVA Method
The normal MVA method, despite its simplicity, provides only an approximate solution to determine the fault levels in a...
Complex MVA Method – Part 2
After presenting the equations that we will be using for the Complex MVA Method in Complex MVA Method – Part 4
In Part 1, Part 2, and Part...
Combining KVAs
KVAs in series. The total KVAs in series (KVAtotal) is the reciprocal sum or inverse sum of all series...

Cable Selection

Cable Selection – Single Phase Earth Conductor Sizes Fault Loop Impedance High Voltage Cable Selection – Underground Cables Selection for Motors

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Cable Selection – Single Phase
Note: This will be the first of a series of tutorials for the selection of cables. The objective of this...
Fault Loop Impedance
Note: This is the second part of a series of tutorials for cable selection. We have done cable selection based...
Cables Selection for Motors
When selecting a suitable cable size for a motor, there are more parameters to consider than when selecting cables...
High Voltage Underground Cable Selection
Unlike the other Cable Selection tutorials which deals with low voltage (LV) cables,...
Earthing Conductor Sizes
The following table lists the recommended minimum sizes of earthing conductors. Note: This serves only as a guide, calculations are...
Arc Flash Hazards
It's not too long ago that arc flash hazards has become an important part of electrical design. More clients...
IEEE 1584 Arc Flash Calculations
IEEE 1584 provides empirical formulas for determining arcing fault current, flash protection boundaries, and incident energy. The formulas are...
Time-Current Curves Using Excel – Part 1
In these articles, I have discussed the methodology on how to create time-current curves using excel.
  1. Creating Coordination Curves...
Time-Current Curves
Discrimination & coordination using Time-Current Curves
  1. TC Curves Part 1 - Introduction
  2. Time-Current Curve Part 2 – Discrimination
    In Part 1, I have discussed the basics of using excel in plotting time-current curves. In...
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