Philippine Electrical Code Part 1/Chapter 1. General/Article 1.10 - Requirements For Electrical Installations

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Article 1.10 - Requirements For Electrical Installations

DISCLAIMER
This is not an official copy of the Philippine Electrical Code. This is a Design Guide according to the provisions of the Philippine Electrical Code. It also provides interpretation and annotations of the clauses of the Philippine Electrical Code. Any information, interpretation and/or annotation presented herein are based on personal opinion of the authors and does not represent the official interpretation of the Philippine Electrical Code.


While the authors have used good faith and efforts to ensure that the information and instructions contained in this work are accurate, the authors disclaim all responsibility for errors or omissions, including without limitation responsibility for damages resulting from the use of or reliance on this work. Use of the information and instructions contained in this work is at your own risk. If any contents or other technology this work contains or describes is subject to open source licenses or the intellectual property rights of others, it is your responsibility to ensure that your use thereof complies with such licenses and/or rights

Note: This is a work in progress...

Contents

1.10.1 General

1.10.1.1 Scope.

This article covers general requirements for the examination and approval, installation and use, access to and spaces about electrical conductors and equipment; enclosures intended for personnel entry; and tunnel installations.

1.10.1.2 Approval.

The conductors and equipment required or permitted by this Code shall be acceptable only if approved.

FPN: See 1.0.1.7, Examination of Equipment for Safety, and 1.10.1.3, Examination, Identification, Installation, and Use of Equipment. See definitions of Approved, Identified, Labeled, and Listed.

1.10.1.3 Examination, Identification, Installation, and Use of Equipment.

(a) Examination.

In judging equipment, considerations such as the following shall be evaluated:

(1) Suitability for installation and use in conformity with the provisions of this Code

FPN: Suitability of equipment use may be identified by a description marked on or provided with a product to identify the suitability of the product for a specific purpose, environment, or application. Suitability of equipment may be evidenced by listing or labeling.

(2) Mechanical strength and durability, including, for parts designed to enclose and protect other equipment, the adequacy of the protection thus provided
(3) Wire-bending and connection space
(4) Electrical insulation
(5) Heating effects under normal conditions of use and also under abnormal conditions likely to arise in service
(6) Arcing effects
(7) Classification by type, size, voltage, current capacity, and specific use
(8) Other factors that contribute to the practical safeguarding of persons using or likely to come in contact with the equipment
(b) Installation and Use.

Listed or labeled equipment shall be installed and used in accordance with any instructions included in the listing or labeling.

1.10.1.4 Voltages.

Throughout this Code, the voltage considered shall be that at which the circuit operates. The voltage rating of electrical equipment shall not be less than the nominal voltage of a circuit to which it is connected.

1.10.1.5 Conductors.

Conductors normally used to carry current shall be of copper unless otherwise provided in this Code. Where the conductor material is not specified, the material and the sizes given in this Code shall apply to copper conductors. Where other materials are used, the size shall be changed accordingly.

FPN For aluminum and copper-clad aluminum conductors, see 3.10.1.15.

1.10.1.6 Conductor Sizes.

Conductor sizes are expressed in square millimetres (mm2) for stranded or in millimetres diameter (mm dia.) for solid.

1.10.1.7 Insulation Integrity.

Completed wiring installations shall be free from short circuits and from grounds other than as required or permitted in Article 2.50.

1.10.1.8 Wiring Methods.

Only wiring methods recognized as suitable are included in this Code. The recognized methods of wiring shall be permitted to be installed in any type of building or occupancy, except as otherwise provided in this Code.

1.10.1.9 Interrupting Rating.

Equipment intended to interrupt current at fault levels shall have an interrupting rating sufficient for the nominal circuit voltage and the current that is available at the line terminals of the equipment.

Equipment intended to interrupt current at other than fault levels shall have an interrupting rating at nominal circuit voltage sufficient for the current that must be interrupted.

1.10.1.10 Circuit Impedance and Other Characteristics.

The overcurrent protective devices, the total impedance, the component short-circuit current ratings, and other characteristics of the circuit to be protected shall be selected and coordinated to permit the circuitprotective devices used to clear a fault to do so without extensive damage to the electrical components of the circuit. This fault shall be assumed to be either between two or more of the circuit conductors or between any circuit conductor and the grounding conductor or enclosing metal raceway. Listed products applied in accordance with their listing shall be considered to meet the requirements of this section.

1.10.1.11 Deteriorating Agents.

Unless identified for use in the operating environment, no conductors or equipment shall be located in damp or wet locations; where exposed to gases, fumes, vapors, liquids, or other agents that have a deteriorating effect on the conductors or equipment; or where exposed to excessive temperatures.

FPN No. 1: See 3.0.1.6 for protection against corrosion.

FPN No. 2: Some cleaning and lubricating compounds can cause severe deterioration of many plastic materials used for insulating and structural applications in equipment.

Equipment identified only as “dry locations,” “Type 1,” or “indoor use only” shall be protected against permanent damage from the weather during building construction.

1.10.1.12 Mechanical Execution of Work.

Electrical equipment shall be installed in a neat and workmanlike manner.

FPN: Accepted industry practices are described in ANSI/NECA 1-2000, Standard Practices for Good Workmanship in Electrical Contracting, and other ANSIapproved installation standards.

(a) Unused Openings.

Unused cable or raceway openings in boxes, raceways, auxiliary gutters, cabinets, cutout boxes, meter socket enclosures, equipment cases, or housings shall be effectively closed to afford protection substantially equivalent to the wall of the equipment. Where metallic plugs or plates are used with nonmetallic enclosures, they shall be recessed at least 6 mm from the outer surface of the enclosure.

(b) Subsurface Enclosures.

Conductors shall be racked to provide ready and safe access in underground and subsurface enclosures into which persons enter for installation and maintenance.

(c) Integrity of Electrical Equipment and Connections.

Internal parts of electrical equipment, including busbars, wiring terminals, insulators, and other surfaces, shall not be damaged or contaminated by foreign materials such as paint, plaster, cleaners, abrasives, or corrosive residues. There shall be no damaged parts that may adversely affect safe operation or mechanical strength of the equipment such as parts that are broken; bent; cut; or deteriorated by corrosion, chemical action, or overheating.

1.10.1.13 Mounting and Cooling of Equipment.

(a) Mounting.

Electrical equipment shall be firmly secured to the surface on which it is mounted. Wooden plugs driven into holes in masonry, concrete, plaster, or similar materials shall not be used.

(b) Cooling.

Electrical equipment that depends on the natural circulation of air and convection principles for cooling of exposed surfaces shall be installed so that room airflow over such surfaces is not prevented by walls or by adjacent installed equipment. For equipment designed for floor mounting, clearance between top surfaces and adjacent surfaces shall be provided to dissipate rising warm air.

Electrical equipment provided with ventilating openings shall be installed so that walls or other obstructions do not prevent the free circulation of air through the equipment.

Panelboards, transformers, and other types of electrical equipment are designed on a specific ambient and operating temperature. Electrical equipment also emit heat due to energy losses. This heat need to be extracted either by natural convection or using artificial methods such as ventilation or airconditioning to prevent excessive increase of ambient temperature. Ventilation is the most commnly used method to remove excess heat in electrical equipment

Ventilcation is defined in Article 1.1 - Definitions.

1.10.1.14 Electrical Connections.

Because of different characteristics of dissimilar metals, devices such as pressure terminal or pressure splicing connectors and soldering lugs shall be identified for the material of the conductor and shall be properly installed and used. Conductors of dissimilar metals shall not be intermixed in a terminal or splicing connector where physical contact occurs between dissimilar conductors (such as copper and aluminum, copper and copper-clad aluminum, or aluminum and copper-clad aluminum), unless the device is identified for the purpose and conditions of use. Materials such as solder, fluxes, inhibitors, and compounds, where employed, shall be suitable for the use and shall be of a type that will not adversely affect the conductors, installation, or equipment.

FPN: Many terminations and equipment are marked with a tightening torque.

(a) Terminals.

Connection of conductors to terminal parts shall ensure a thoroughly good connection without damaging the conductors and shall be made by means of pressure connectors (including setscrew type), solder lugs, or splices to flexible leads. Connection by means of wire-binding screws or studs and nuts that have upturned lugs or the equivalent shall be permitted for 5.5 mm2 (2.6 mm dia.) or smaller conductors. Terminals for more than one conductor and terminals used to connect aluminum shall be so identified.

(b) Splices.

Conductors shall be spliced or joined with splicing devices identified for the use or by brazing, welding, or soldering with a fusible metal or alloy. Soldered splices shall first be spliced or joined so as to be mechanically and electrically secure without solder and then be soldered. All splices and joints and the free ends of conductors shall be covered with an insulation equivalent to that of the conductors or with an insulating device identified for the purpose. Wire connectors or splicing means installed on conductors for direct burial shall be listed for such use.

(c) Temperature Limitations.

The temperature rating associated with the ampacity of a conductor shall be selected and coordinated so as not to exceed the lowest temperature rating of any connected termination, conductor, or device. Conductors with temperature ratings higher than specified for terminations shall be permitted to be used for ampacity adjustment, correction, or both.

(1) Equipment Provisions.

The determination of termination provisions of equipment shall be based on 1.10.1.14(c)(1)a or (c)(1)b. Unless the equipment is listed and marked otherwise, conductor ampacities used in determining equipment termination provisions shall be based on Table 3.10.1.16 as appropriately modified by 3.10.1.15(b)(6).

a. Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated 100 amperes or less, or marked for 2.0 mm2 (1.6 mm dia.) through 38 mm2 conductors, shall be used only for one of the following:
1. Conductors rated 60°C (140°F).
2. Conductors with higher temperature ratings, provided the ampacity of such conductors is determined based on the 60°C (140°F) ampacity of the conductor size used.
3. Conductors with higher temperature ratings if the equipment is listed and identified for use with such conductors.
4. For motors marked with design letters B, C, or D, conductors having an insulation rating of 75°C (167°F) or higher shall be permitted to be used, provided the ampacity of such conductors does not exceed the 75°C (167°F) ampacity.
b. Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated over 100 amperes, or marked for conductors larger than 38 mm2, shall be used only for one of the following:
1. Conductors rated 75°C (167°F)
2. Conductors with higher temperature ratings, provided the ampacity of such conductors does not exceed the 75°C (167°F) ampacity of the conductor size used, or up to their ampacity if the equipment is listed and identified for use with such conductors
(2) Separate Connector Provisions.

Separately installed pressure connectors shall be used with conductors at the ampacities not exceeding the ampacity at the listed and identified temperature rating of the connector.

FPN: With respect to 1.10.1.14(c)(1) and (c)(2), equipment markings or listing information may additionally restrict the sizing and temperature ratings of connected conductors.

1.10.1.15 High-Leg Marking.

On a 4-wire, delta-connected system where the midpoint of one phase winding is grounded, only the conductor or busbar having the higher phase voltage to ground shall be durably and permanently marked by an outer finish that is orange in color or by other effective means. Such identification shall be placed at each point on the system where a connection is made if the grounded conductor is also present.

1.10.1.16 Flash Protection.

Switchboards, panelboards, industrial control panels, meter socket enclosures, and motor control centers that are in other than dwelling occupancies and are likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized shall be field marked to warn licensed electrical practitioner or nonlicensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner of potential electric arc flash hazards. The marking shall be located so as to be clearly visible to licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner before examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance of the equipment.

FPN No. 1: NFPA 70E-2004, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, provides assistance in determining severity of potential exposure, planning safe work practices, and selecting personal protective equipment.

FPN No. 2: ANSI Z535.4-1998, Product Safety Signs and Labels, provides guidelines for the design of safety signs and labels for application to products.

1.10.1.18 Arcing Parts.

Parts of electric equipment that in ordinary operation produce arcs, sparks, flames, or molten metal shall be enclosed or separated and isolated from all combustible material.

FPN: For hazardous (classified) locations, see Articles 5.0 through 5.17. For motors, see 4.30.1.14.

1.10.1.19 Light and Power from Railway Conductors.

Circuits for lighting and power shall not be connected to any system that contains trolley wires with a ground return.

Exception: Such circuit connections shall be permitted in car houses, power houses, or passenger and freight stations operated in connection with electric railways.

1.10.1.21 Marking.

The manufacturer’s name, trademark, or other descriptive marking by which the organization responsible for the product can be identified shall be placed on all electric equipment. Other markings that indicate voltage, current, wattage, or other ratings shall be provided as specified elsewhere in this Code. The marking shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved.

1.10.1.22 Identification of Disconnecting Means.

Each disconnecting means shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose unless located and arranged so the purpose is evident. The marking shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment involved. Where circuit breakers or fuses are applied in compliance with the series combination ratings marked on the equipment by the manufacturer, the equipment enclosure(s) shall be legibly marked in the field to indicate the equipment has been applied with a series combination rating. The marking shall be readily visible and state the following:

CAUTION
SERIES COMBINATION SYSTEM RATED ____ AMPERES
IDENTIFIED REPLACEMENT COMPONENTS REQUIRED

FPN: See 2.40.7.7(b) for interrupting rating marking for end-use equipment.

1.10.1.23 Current Transformers.

Unused current transformers associated with potentially energized circuits shall be short-circuited.

1.10.2 600 Volts, Nominal, or Less

1.10.2.1 Spaces About Electrical Equipment.

Sufficient access and working space shall be provided and maintained about all electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. Enclosures housing electrical apparatus that are controlled by a lock(s) shall be considered accessible to licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner.

(a) Working Space.

Working space for equipment operating at 600 volts, nominal, or less to ground and likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized shall comply with the dimensions of 1.10.2.1(a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(3) or as required or permitted elsewhere in this Code.

(1) Depth of Working Space.

The depth of the working space in the direction of live parts shall not be less than that specified in Table 1.10.2.1(a)(1) unless the requirements of 1.10.2.1(a)(1)a, (a)(1)b, or (a)(1)c are met. Distances shall be measured from the exposed live parts or from the enclosure or opening if the live parts are enclosed.

Table 1.10.2.1(a)(1) Working Spaces
Nominal Voltage to Ground Minimum Clear Distance (mm)
Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3
0–150 900 900 900
151–600 900 1000 1200

Note: Where the conditions are as follows:
Condition 1 — Exposed live parts on one side of the working space and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides of the working space that are effectively guarded by insulating materials.
Condition 2 — Exposed live parts on one side of the working space and grounded parts on the other side of the working space. Concrete, brick, or tile walls shall be considered as grounded.
Condition 3 — Exposed live parts on both sides of the working space.

a. Dead-Front Assemblies. Working space shall not be required in the back or sides of assemblies, such as dead-front switchboards or motor control centers, where all connections and all renewable or adjustable parts, such as fuses or switches, are accessible from locations other than the back or sides. Where rear access is required to work on nonelectrical parts on the back of enclosed equipment, a minimum horizontal working space of 750 mm shall be provided.
b. Low Voltage. By special permission, smaller working spaces shall be permitted where all exposed live parts operate at not greater than 30 volts rms, 42 volts peak, or 60 volts dc.
c. Existing Buildings. In existing buildings where electrical equipment is being replaced, Condition 2 working clearance shall be permitted between dead-front switchboards, panelboards, or motor control centers located across the aisle from each other where conditions of maintenance and supervision ensure that written procedures have been adopted to prohibit equipment on both sides of the aisle from being open at the same time and licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner who are authorized will service the installation.
(2) Width of Working Space.

The width of the working space in front of the electric equipment shall be the width of the equipment or 750 mm, whichever is greater. In all cases, the work space shall permit at least a 90 degree opening of equipment doors or hinged panels.

(3) Height of Working Space.

The work space shall be clear and extend from the grade, floor, or platform to the height required by 1.10.2.1(e). Within the height requirements of this section, other equipment that is associated with the electrical installation and is located above or below the electrical equipment shall be permitted to extend not more than 150 mm beyond the front of the electrical equipment.

(b) Clear Spaces.

Working space required by this section shall not be used for storage. When normally enclosed live parts are exposed for inspection or servicing, the working space, if in a passageway or general open space, shall be suitably guarded.

(c) Entrance to Working Space.
(1) Minimum Required.

At least one entrance of sufficient area shall be provided to give access to working space about electrical equipment.

(2) Large Equipment.

For equipment rated 1 200 amperes or more that contains overcurrent devices, switching devices, or control devices, there shall be one entrance to the required working space not less than 600 mm wide and 2 000 mm high at each end of the working space. Where the entrance has a personnel door(s), the door(s) shall open in the direction of egress and be equipped with panic bars, pressure plates, or other devices that are normally latched but open under simple pressure.

A single entrance to the required working space shall be permitted where either of the conditions in 1.10.2.1(c)(2)a or (c)(2)b is met.

a. Unobstructed Exit. Where the location permits a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel, a single entrance to the working space shall be permitted.
b. Extra Working Space. Where the depth of the working space is twice that required by 1.10.2.1(a)(1), a single entrance shall be permitted. It shall be located so that the distance from the equipment to the nearest edge of the entrance is not less than the minimum clear distance specified in Table 1.10.2.1(a)(1) for equipment operating at that voltage and in that condition.
(d) Illumination.

Illumination shall be provided for all working spaces about service equipment, switchboards, panelboards, or motor control centers installed indoors. Additional lighting outlets shall not be required where the work space is illuminated by an adjacent light source or as permitted by 2.10.3.21(a)(1), Exception No. 1, for switched receptacles. In electrical equipment rooms, the illumination shall not be controlled by automatic means only.

(e) Headroom.

The minimum headroom of working spaces about service equipment, switchboards, panelboards, or motor control centers shall be 2 000 mm. Where the electrical equipment exceeds 2 000 m in height, the minimum headroom shall not be less than the height of the equipment.

Exception: In existing dwelling units, service equipment or panelboards that do not exceed 200 amperes shall be permitted in spaces where the headroom is less than 2000 mm.

(f) Dedicated Equipment Space.

All switchboards, panelboards, distribution boards, and motor control centers shall be located in dedicated spaces and protected from damage.

Exception: Control equipment that by its very nature or because of other rules of the Code must be adjacent to or within sight of its operating machinery shall be permitted in those locations.

(1) Indoor.

Indoor installations shall comply with 1.10.2.1(f)(1)a through (f)(1)d.

a. Dedicated Electrical Space. The space equal to the width and depth of the equipment and extending from the floor to a height of 1 800 m above the equipment or to the structural ceiling, whichever is lower, shall be dedicated to the electrical installation. No piping, ducts, leak protection apparatus, or other equipment foreign to the electrical installation shall be located in this zone.

Exception: Suspended ceilings with removable panels shall be permitted within the 1 800 mm zone.

b. Foreign Systems. The area above the dedicated space required by 1.10.2.1(f)(1)a shall be permitted to contain foreign systems, provided protection is installed to avoid damage to the electrical equipment from condensation, leaks, or breaks in such foreign systems.
c. Sprinkler Protection. Sprinkler protection shall be permitted for the dedicated space where the piping complies with this section.
d. Suspended Ceilings. A dropped, suspended, or similar ceiling that does not add strength to the building structure shall not be considered a structural ceiling.
(2) Outdoor.

Outdoor electrical equipment shall be installed in suitable enclosures and shall be protected from accidental contact by unauthorized personnel, or by vehicular traffic, or by accidental spillage or leakage from piping systems. The working clearance space shall include the zone described in 1.10.2.1(a). No architectural appurtenance or other equipment shall be located in this zone.

1.10.2.2 Guarding of Live Parts.

(a) Live Parts Guarded Against Accidental Contact.

Except as elsewhere required or permitted by this Code, live parts of electrical equipment operating at 50 volts or more shall be guarded against accidental contact by approved enclosures or by any of the following means:

(1) By location in a room, vault, or similar enclosure that is accessible only to licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner.

IEEE NESC C2 2014 Table 124-1.png

Source: IEEE NESC C2 2014 Table 124-1
(2) By suitable permanent, substantial partitions or screens arranged so that only licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner have access to the space within reach of the live parts. Any openings in such partitions or screens shall be sized and located so that persons are not likely to come into accidental contact with the live parts or to bring conducting objects into contact with them.
(3) By location on a suitable balcony, gallery, or platform elevated and arranged so as to exclude unqualified persons.
(4) By elevation of 2 400 mm or more above the floor or other working surface.
(b) Prevent Physical Damage.

In locations where electric equipment is likely to be exposed to physical damage, enclosures or guards shall be so arranged and of such strength as to prevent such damage.

(c) Warning Signs.

Entrances to rooms and other guarded locations that contain exposed live parts shall be marked with conspicuous warning signs forbidding unqualified persons to enter.

FPN: For motors, see 4.30.12.2 and 4.30.12.3. For over 600 volts, see 1.10.3.5.

1.10.3 Over 600 Volts, Nominal

1.10.3.1 General.

Conductors and equipment used on circuits over 600 volts, nominal, shall comply with Part 1.10.1 and with the following sections, which supplement or modify Part 1.10.1. In no case shall the provisions of this part apply to equipment on the supply side of the service point.

1.10.3.2 Enclosure for Electrical Installations.

Electrical installations in a vault, room, or closet or in an area surrounded by a wall, screen, or fence, access to which is controlled by a lock(s) or other approved means, shall be considered to be accessible to licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner only. The type of enclosure used in a given case shall be designed and constructed according to the nature and degree of the hazard(s) associated with the installation.

For installations other than equipment as described in 1.10.3.2(d), a wall, screen, or fence shall be used to enclose an outdoor electrical installation to deter access by persons who are not qualified. A fence shall not be less than 2 100 mm in height or a combination of 1 800 mm or more of fence fabric and a 300 mm or more extension utilizing three or more strands of barbed wire or equivalent. The distance from the fence to live parts shall be not less than given in Table 1.10.3.2.

Table 1.10.3.2 Minimum Distance from Fence to Live Parts
Nominal Voltage Minimum Distance to Live Parts (m)
601 - 13,799 3.05
13,800 - 230,000 4.57
Over 230,000 5.49

Note: For clearances of conductors for specific system voltages and typical BIL ratings, see ANSI C2-2002, National Electrical Safety Code.

FPN: See Article 4.50 for construction requirements for transformer vaults.

(a) Fire Resistivity of Electrical Vaults.

The walls, roof, floors, and doorways of vaults containing conductors and equipment over 600 volts, nominal, shall be constructed of materials that have adequate structural strength for the conditions, with a minimum fire rating of 3 hours. The floors of vaults in contact with the earth shall be of concrete that is not less than 100 mm thick, but where the vault is constructed with a vacant space or other stories below it, the floor shall have adequate structural strength for the load imposed on it and a minimum fire resistance of 3 hours. For the purpose of this section, studs and wallboards shall not be considered acceptable.

(b) Indoor Installations.
(1) In Places Accessible to Unqualified Persons.

Indoor electrical installations that are accessible to unqualified persons shall be made with metal-enclosed equipment. Metal-enclosed switchgear, unit substations, transformers, pull boxes, connection boxes, and other similar associated equipment shall be marked with appropriate caution signs. Openings in ventilated dry-type transformers or similar openings in other equipment shall be designed so that foreign objects inserted through these openings are deflected from energized parts.

(2) In Places Accessible to Licensed Electrical Practitioner or Non-Licensed Electrical Practitioner Under the Supervision of a Licensed Electrical Practitioner Only.

Indoor electrical installations considered accessible only to licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner in accordance with this section shall comply with 1.10.3.5, 1.10.3.7, and 4.90.2.4.

(c) Outdoor Installations.
(1) In Places Accessible to Unqualified Persons.

Outdoor electrical installations that are open to unqualified persons shall comply with Parts 2.25.1, 2.25.2, and 2.25.3.

FPN: For clearances of conductors for system voltages over 600 volts, nominal, see ANSI C2-2002, National Electrical Safety Code[1].

(2) In Places Accessible to Licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner Only.

Outdoor electrical installations that have exposed live parts shall be accessible to licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner only in accordance with the first paragraph of this section and shall comply with 1.10.3.5, 1.10.3.7, and 4.90.2.4.

(d) Enclosed Equipment Accessible to Unqualified Persons.

Ventilating or similar openings in equipment shall be designed such that foreign objects inserted through these openings are deflected from energized parts. Where exposed to physical damage from vehicular traffic, suitable guards shall be provided. Nonmetallic or metal enclosed equipment located outdoors and accessible to the general public shall be designed such that exposed nuts or bolts cannot be readily removed, permitting access to live parts. Where nonmetallic or metal-enclosed equipment is accessible to the general public and the bottom of the enclosure is less than 2 400 mm above the floor or grade level, the enclosure door or hinged cover shall be kept locked. Doors and covers of enclosures used solely as pull boxes, splice boxes, or junction boxes shall be locked, bolted, or screwed on. Underground box covers that weigh over 45.4 kg shall be considered as meeting this requirement.

1.10.3.3 Work Space About Equipment.

Sufficient space shall be provided and maintained about electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. Where energized parts are exposed, the minimum clear work space shall not be less than 2 000 mm high (measured vertically from the floor or platform) or less than 900 mm wide (measured parallel to the equipment). The depth shall be as required in 1.10.3.5(a). In all cases, the work space shall permit at least a 90 degree opening of doors or hinged panels.

1.10.3.4 Entrance and Access to Work Space.

(a) Entrance.

At least one entrance not less than 600 mm wide and 2 000 mm high shall be provided to give access to the working space about electric equipment. Where the entrance has a personnel door(s), the door(s) shall open in the direction of egress and be equipped with panic bars, pressure plates, or other devices that are normally latched but open under simple pressure.

(1) Large Equipment.

On switchboard and control panels exceeding 1 800 mm in width, there shall be one entrance at each end of the equipment. A single entrance to the required working space shall be permitted where either of the conditions in 1.10.3.4(a)(1)a or (a)(1)b is met.

a. Unobstructed Exit. Where the location permits a continuous and unobstructed way of exit travel, a single entrance to the working space shall be permitted.
b. Extra Working Space. Where the depth of the working space is twice that required by 1.10.3.5(a), a single entrance shall be permitted. It shall be located so that the distance from the equipment to the nearest edge of the entrance is not less than the minimum clear distance specified in Table 1.10.3.5(a) for equipment operating at that voltage and in that condition.
(2) Guarding.

Where bare energized parts at any voltage or insulated energized parts above 600 volts, nominal, to ground are located adjacent to such entrance, they shall be suitably guarded.

(b) Access.

Permanent ladders or stairways shall be provided to give safe access to the working space around electric equipment installed on platforms, balconies, or mezzanine floors or in attic or roof rooms or spaces.

1.10.3.5 Work Space and Guarding.

(a) Working Space.

Except as elsewhere required or permitted in this Code, the minimum clear working space in the direction of access to live parts of electrical equipment shall not be less than specified in Table 1.10.3.5(a). Distances shall be measured from the live parts, if such are exposed, or from the enclosure front or opening if such are enclosed.

Exception: Working space shall not be required in back of equipment such as dead-front switchboards or control assemblies where there are no renewable or adjustable parts (such as fuses or switches) on the back and where all connections are accessible from locations other than the back. Where rear access is required to work on deenergized parts on the back of enclosed equipment, a minimum working space of 750 mm horizontally shall be provided.

Table 1.10.3.5(a) Minimum Depth of Clear Working Space at Electrical Equipment
Nominal Voltage to Ground Minimum Clearance Distance (mm)
Condition 1 Condition 2 Condition 3
601 - 2500 V 900 1200 1500
2501 - 9000 V 1200 1500 1800
9001 - 25000 V 1500 1800 2700
25001 V - 75 kV 1800 2400 3000
Above 75 kV 2400 3000 3600

Note: Where the conditions are as follows:

Condition 1 - Exposed live parts on one side of the working space and no live or grounded parts on the other side of the working space, or exposed live parts on both sides of the working space that are effectively guarded by insulating materials.

Condition 2 - Exposed live parts on one side of the working space and grounded parts on the other side of the working space. Concrete, brick, or tile walls shall be considered as grounded.

Condition 3 - Exposed live parts on both sides of the working space.

(b) Separation from Low-Voltage Equipment.

Where switches, cutouts, or other equipment operating at 600 volts, nominal, or less are installed in a vault, room, or enclosure where there are exposed live parts or exposed wiring operating at over 600 volts, nominal, the high voltage equipment shall be effectively separated from the space occupied by the low-voltage equipment by a suitable partition, fence, or screen.

Exception: Switches or other equipment operating at 600 volts, nominal, or less and serving only equipment within the high-voltage vault, room, or enclosure shall be permitted to be installed in the high voltage vault, room or enclosure without a partition, fence, or screen if accessible to licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner only.

(c) Locked Rooms or Enclosures.

The entrance to all buildings, vaults, rooms, or enclosures containing exposed live parts or exposed conductors operating at over 600 volts, nominal, shall be kept locked unless such entrances are under the observation of a licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner at all times.

Where the voltage exceeds 600 volts, nominal, permanent and conspicuous warning signs shall be provided, reading as follows:

DANGER — HIGH VOLTAGE — KEEP OUT

(d) Illumination.

Illumination shall be provided for all working spaces about electrical equipment. The lighting outlets shall be arranged so that persons changing lamps or making repairs on the lighting system are not endangered by live parts or other equipment. The points of control shall be located so that persons are not likely to come in contact with any live part or moving part of the equipment while turning on the lights.

(e) Elevation of Unguarded Live Parts.

Unguarded live parts above working space shall be maintained at elevations not less than required by Table 1.10.3.5(e).

(f) Protection of Service Equipment, Metal-Enclosed Power Switchgear, and Industrial Control Assemblies.

Pipes or ducts foreign to the electrical installation and requiring periodic maintenance or whose malfunction would endanger the operation of the electrical system shall not be located in the vicinity of the service equipment, metal-enclosed power switchgear, or industrial control assemblies. Protection shall be provided where necessary to avoid damage from condensation leaks and breaks in such foreign systems. Piping and other facilities shall not be considered foreign if provided for fire protection of the electrical installation.

Table 1.10.3.5(e) Elevation of Unguarded Live Parts Above Working Space
Nominal Voltage BetweenPhases Elevation (mm)
601–7500 V 2700
7501-35000 V 2900
Over 35 kV 2900 + 9.5/kV above 35 kV

1.10.3.7 Circuit Conductors.

Circuit conductors shall be permitted to be installed in raceways; in cable trays; as metal-clad cable, as bare wire, cable, and busbars; or as Type MV cables or conductors as provided in 3.0.2.7, 3.0.2.9, 3.0.2.10, and 3.0.2.20. Bare live conductors shall conform with 4.90.2.4.

Insulators, together with their mounting and conductor attachments, where used as supports for wires, single-conductor cables, or busbars, shall be capable of safely withstanding the maximum magnetic forces that would prevail when two or more conductors of a circuit were subjected to short-circuit current.

Exposed runs of insulated wires and cables that have a bare lead sheath or a braided outer covering shall be supported in a manner designed to prevent physical damage to the braid or sheath. Supports for lead-covered cables shall be designed to prevent electrolysis of the sheath.

1.10.3.11 Temperature Limitations at Terminations.

Conductors shall be permitted to be terminated based on the 90°C temperature rating and ampacity as given in Table 3.10.1.67 through Table 3.10.1.86, unless otherwise identified.

1.10.4 Tunnel Installations over 600 Volts, Nominal

1.10.4.1 General.

(a) Covered. The provisions of this part shall apply to the installation and use of high-voltage power distribution and utilization equipment that is portable, mobile, or both, such as substations, trailers, cars, mobile shovels, draglines, hoists, drills, dredges, compressors, pumps, conveyors, underground excavators, and the like.

b) Other Articles. The requirements of this part shall be additional to, or amendatory of, those prescribed in Articles 1.0 through 4.90 of this Code. Special attention shall be paid to Article 2.50.

(c) Protection Against Physical Damage. Conductors and cables in tunnels shall be located above the tunnel floor and so placed or guarded to protect them from physical damage.

1.10.4.2 Overcurrent Protection.

Motor-operated equipment shall be protected from overcurrent in accordance with Parts 4.30.3, 4.30.4, and 4.30.5. Transformers shall be protected from overcurrent in accordance with 4.50.1.3.

1.10.4.3 Conductors.

High-voltage conductors in tunnels shall be installed in metal conduit or other metal raceway, Type MC cable, or other approved multiconductor cable. Multiconductor portable cable shall be permitted to supply mobile equipment.

1.10.4.4 Bonding and Equipment Grounding Conductors.

(a) Grounded and Bonded. All non–current-carrying metal parts of electric equipment and all metal raceways and cable sheaths shall be effectively grounded and bonded to all metal pipes and rails at the portal and at intervals not exceeding 300 m throughout the tunnel.

(b) Equipment Grounding Conductors. An equipment grounding conductor shall be run with circuit conductors inside the metal raceway or inside the multiconductor cable jacket. The equipment grounding conductor shall be permitted to be insulated or bare. 1.10.4.5 Transformers, Switches, and Electrical Equipment. All transformers, switches, motor controllers, motors, rectifiers, and other equipment installed below ground shall be protected from physical damage by location or guarding.

1.10.4.6 Energized Parts.

Bare terminals of transformers, switches, motor controllers, and other equipment shall be enclosed to prevent accidental contact with energized parts.

1.10.4.7 Ventilation System Controls.

Electrical controls for the ventilation system shall be arranged so that the airflow can be reversed.

1.10.4.8 Disconnecting Means.

A switch or circuit breaker that simultaneously opens all ungrounded conductors of the circuit shall be installed within sight of each transformer or motor location for disconnecting the transformer or motor. The switch or circuit breaker for a transformer shall have an ampere rating not less than the ampacity of the transformer supply conductors. The switch or circuit breaker for a motor shall comply with the applicable requirements of Article 4.30.

1.10.4.9 Enclosures.

Enclosures for use in tunnels shall be dripproof, weatherproof, or submersible as required by the environmental conditions. Switch or contactor enclosures shall not be used as junction boxes or as raceways for conductors feeding through or tapping off to other switches, unless the enclosures comply with 3.12.1.8.

1.10.5 Manholes and Other Electric Enclosures Intended for Personnel Entry, All Voltages

1.10.5.1 General.

Electric enclosures intended for personnel entry and specifically fabricated for this purpose shall be of sufficient size to provide safe work space about electric equipment with live parts that is likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized. Such enclosures shall have sufficient size to permit ready installation or withdrawal of the conductors employed without damage to the conductors or to their insulation. They shall comply with the provisions of this part.

Exception: Where electric enclosures covered by 1.10.5 are part of an industrial wiring system operating under conditions of maintenance and supervision that ensure that only licensed electrical practitioner or non-licensed electrical practitioner under the supervision of a licensed electrical practitioner monitor and supervise the system, they shall be permitted to be designed and installed in accordance with appropriate engineering practice. If required by the authority having jurisdiction, design documentation shall be provided.

1.10.5.2 Strength.

Manholes, vaults, and their means of access shall be designed under qualified engineering supervision and shall withstand all loads likely to be imposed on the structures.

FPN: See ANSI C2-2002, National Electrical Safety Code, for additional information on the loading that can be expected to bear on underground enclosures.

ANSI C2-2002 is now IEEE[2] C2 National Electrical Satefy Code 2015.


1.10.5.3 Cabling Work Space.

A clear work space not less than 900 mm wide shall be provided where cables are located on both sides, and not less than 750 mm where cables are only on one side. The vertical headroom shall not be less than 1 800 mm unless the opening is within 300 mm, measured horizontally, of the adjacent interior side wall of the enclosure.

Exception: A manhole containing only one or more of the following shall be permitted to have one of the horizontal work space dimensions reduced to 600 mm where the other horizontal clear work space is increased so the sum of the two dimensions is not less than 1 800 mm:

(1) Optical fiber cables as covered in Article 7.70
(2) Power-limited fire alarm circuits supplied in accordance with 7.60.3.1(a)
(3) Class 2 or Class 3 remote-control and signaling circuits, or both, supplied in accordance with 7.25.3.1.

1.10.5.4 Equipment Work Space.

Where electric equipment with live parts that is likely to require examination, adjustment, servicing, or maintenance while energized is installed in a manhole, vault, or other enclosure designed for personnel access, the work space and associated requirements in 1.10.2.1 shall be met for installations operating at 600 volts or less. Where the installation is over 600 volts, the work space and associated requirements in 1.10.3.5 shall be met. A manhole access cover that weighs over 45 kg (100 lb) shall be considered as meeting the requirements of 1.10.3.5(c). 1.10.5.5 Bending Space for Conductors. Bending space for conductors operating at 600 volts or below shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of 3.14.2.14. Conductors operating over 600 volts shall be provided with bending space in accordance with 3.14.4.2(a) and 3.14.4.2(b), as applicable. All conductors shall be cabled, racked up, or arranged in an approved manner that provides ready and safe access for persons to enter for installation and maintenance.

Exception: Where 3.14.4.2(b) applies, each row or column of ducts on one wall of the enclosure shall be calculated individually, and the single row or column that provides the maximum distance shall be used.

1.10.5.6 Access to Manholes.

(a) Dimensions.

Rectangular access openings shall not be less than 650 mm × 550 mm. Round access openings in a manhole shall not be less than 650 mm in diameter. Exception: A manhole that has a fixed ladder that does not obstruct the opening or that contains only one or more of the following shall be permitted to reduce the minimum cover diameter to 600 mm:

(1) Optical fiber cables as covered in Article 7.70
(2) Power-limited fire alarm circuits supplied in accordance with 7.60.3.1
(3) Class 2 or Class 3 remote-control and signaling circuits, or both, supplied in accordance with 7.25.3.1
(b) Obstructions.

Manhole openings shall be free of protrusions that could injure personnel or prevent ready egress.

(c) Location.

Manhole openings for personnel shall be located where they are not directly above electric equipment or conductors in the enclosure. Where this is not practicable, either a protective barrier or a fixed ladder shall be provided.

(d) Covers.

Covers shall be over 45 kg (100 lb) or otherwise designed to require the use of tools to open. They shall be designed or restrained so they cannot fall into the manhole or protrude sufficiently to contact electrical conductors or equipment within the manhole.

(e) Marking.

Manhole covers shall have an identifying mark or logo that prominently indicates their function, such as “electric.”

1.10.5.7 Access to Vaults and Tunnels.

(a) Location.

Access openings for personnel shall be located where they are not directly above electric equipment or conductors in the enclosure. Other openings shall be permitted over equipment to facilitate installation, maintenance, or replacement of equipment.

(b) Locks.

In addition to compliance with the requirements of 1.10.3.5, if applicable, access openings for personnel shall be arranged such that a person on the inside can exit when the access door is locked from the outside, or in the case of normally locking by padlock, the locking arrangement shall be such that the padlock can be closed on the locking system to prevent locking from the outside.

1.10.5.8 Ventilation.

Where manholes, tunnels, and vaults have communicating openings into enclosed areas used by the public, ventilation to open air shall be provided wherever practicable.

1.10.5.9 Guarding.

Where conductors or equipment, or both, could be contacted by objects falling or being pushed through a ventilating grating, both conductors and live parts shall be protected in accordance with the requirements of 1.10.2.2(a)(2) or 1.10.3.2(b)(1), depending on the voltage.

10.5.10 Fixed Ladders.

Fixed ladders shall be corrosion resistant.

Other Pages in this Category: Philippine Electrical Code Chapter 1. General

References

  1. National Electrical Safety Code
  2. IEEE